Music theory


  1. Pitch
  2. Major and minor modes
  3. Scales
  4. Global keys
  5. Meter
  6. Dynamics


1 octave consists of 8 notes, leading up to the same note, but higher 1 set.

Beats in music are notated by:

  • Semibreve: a whole note, worth 4 counts
  • Minum, a half note, worth2 counts
  • Crotchet, a quarter note, worth 1 count
  • Quaver, an eighth note, worth 1/2 count
  • Semiquaver, a sixteenth note, worth 1/4 count

The numbers that appear to the left of a music script is known as the time signature. An example is 2/4. The top number (2) is the Hommany, meaning there are 2 beats a bar. The bottom number (4) is the Type, referring to a crotchet. So there are 2 crotchets a bar.

Rests must be grouped such that the rest doesn’t cross over a bar. Thus, the beat must be completed if it isn’t already.

A sharp is 1 semitone higher than the note
A flat is 1 semitone lower than the note

Intervals outline the differences between 2 notes, based on with respect to its major scale.